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Multi-omics of the gut microbial ecosystem in inflammatory bowel diseases

Inflammatory bowel diseases, which include Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, affect several million individuals worldwide. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are complex diseases that are heterogeneous at the clinical, immunological, …

Women are underrepresented in computational biology publications: An analysis of the scholarly literature in biology, computer science and computational biology

While women are generally underrepresented in STEM fields, there are noticeable differences between fields. For instance, the gender ratio in biology is more balanced than in computer science. We were interested in how this difference is reflected in …

Extensive horizontal gene transfer in cheese-associated bacteria

Acquisition of genes through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) allows microbes to rapidly gain new capabilities and adapt to new or changing environments. Identifying widespread HGT regions within multispecies microbiomes can pinpoint the molecular …

Innate immune pattern recognition: a cell biological perspective.

Receptors of the innate immune system detect conserved determinants of microbial and viral origin. Activation of these receptors initiates signaling events that culminate in an effective immune response. Recently, the view that innate immune …

Biochemistry of Toll-Like Receptors

Recognition of potentially pathogenic organisms is a critical first step in an immune response. To prevent pathogen outgrowth, this detection must be rapid and initiate a robust inflammatory response. However, inflammation is dangerous, and spurious …

Endosomes as platforms for NOD-like receptor signaling.

The NOD-like receptors (NLRs) were among the first innate immune receptors discovered, yet a clear understanding of the basic principles underlying their mechanisms of action is lacking. Two recent studies provide important cell biological insights …

A promiscuous lipid-binding protein diversifies the subcellular sites of toll-like receptor signal transduction.

The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system are unusual in that individual family members are located on different organelles, yet most activate a common signaling pathway important for host defense. It remains unclear how this common …

Effects of a novel arginine methyltransferase inhibitor on T-helper cell cytokine production.

The protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of enzymes catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to the guanidino nitrogen atom of peptidylarginine to form monomethylarginine or dimethylarginine. We created several …

NIP45 controls the magnitude of the type 2 T helper cell response.

Nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) transcription factors are key regulators of gene transcription within immune cells. The NFAT-interacting protein, (NIP45), augments NFAT-driven IL-4 expression by a mechanism that relies on arginine …